Maps Bibliography
by Category

The Problem for the Ocean

A. The Ice and the Sea

Albert, Simon, et al. “Interactions between Sea-level Rise and Wave Exposure on Reef Island Dynamics in the Solomon Islands.” Environmental Research Letters 11, no. 5 (May 2016). https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054011 (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

Doyle, Allister. “Polar Sea Ice the Size of India Vanishes in Record Heat.” ArcticToday: Environment (5 December 2016). http://www.arcticnow.com/science/2016/12/05/polar-sea-ice-the-size-of-india-vanishes-in-record-heat (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

Fondriest Environmental, Inc. “Solar Radiation and Photosynthetically Active Radiation” in Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements (21 March 2014). http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/weather/photosynthetically-active-radiation (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

Katz, Cheryl. “How Long Can Oceans Continue to Absorb Earth’s Excess Heat?” YaleEnvironment360: The Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (30 March 2015). http://e360.yale.edu/features/how_long_can_oceans_continue_to_absorb_earths_excess_heat (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). “Quick Facts on Ice Sheets.” Quick Facts. https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/icesheets.html (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

Ripple, William J., et al. “World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice.” Bioscience 20, no. 10 (November 2017): 1-6, 4605229. http://scientistswarning.forestry.oregonstate.edu/sites/sw/files/Warning_article_with_supp_11-13-17.pdf (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

Scott, Michon. “Greenland Ice Mass Loss Continued in 2016.” NOAA Climate.gov (28 December 2016). https://www.climate.gov/news-features/featured-images/greenland-ice-mass-loss-continued-2016 (accessed 7 July 2019).

 

Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty. “The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.” https://www.ats.aq/e/ep.htm (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

Wadhams, Peter. “The Global Impacts of Rapidly Disappearing Sea Ice.” YaleEnvironment360: The Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (26 September 2016). https://e360.yale.edu/features/as_arctic_ocean_ice_disappears_global_climate_impacts_intensify_wadhams (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

World Meteorologist Organization (WMO). “Unprecedented Arctic Change Demands Action” (28 September 2016). https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/unprecedented-arctic-change-demands-action (accessed July 12, 2019).

 

World Meteorologist Organization (WMO). “WMO Confirms Past 4 Years Were Warmest on Record” (6 February 2016). https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/wmo-confirms-past-4-years-were-warmest-record (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

World Wildlife Federation (WWF). “Arctic Climate Feedbacks: Global Implications.” https://www.climatecommunication.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/arctic_climate.pdf (accessed July 12, 2019).

 

B. The Permafrost

Wadhams, Peter. “The Global Impacts of Rapidly Disappearing Sea Ice.” YaleEnvironment360: The Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (26 September 2016). https://e360.yale.edu/features/as_arctic_ocean_ice_disappears_global_climate_impacts_intensify_wadhams (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

C. Marine Life

Pershing, Andrew J., et al. “The Impact of Whaling on the Ocean Carbon Cycle: Why Bigger Was Better.” PLOS One (26 August 2010), 0012444. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012444 (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

World Wildlife Federation. “The Arctic.” https://www.wwf.org.uk/where-we-work/places/arctic (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

The Problem for Humans

A. Water Shortages

Dall’Osto, M., et al. “Arctic Sea Ice Melt Leads to Atmospheric New Particle Formation.” Scientifc Reports 7, Article no. 3318 (2017). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-03328-1 (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

UN-Water. “Synthesis Report for SDG6 In-depth Review” (27 January 2017). https://www.unwater.org/synthesis-report-sdg6-depth-review/ (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Center for Science Education. “Melting Arctic Sea Ice and Ocean Circulation.” https://scied.ucar.edu/longcontent/melting-arctic-sea-ice-and-ocean-circulation (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

The World Bank Group. “Understanding Poverty: Water.” https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/water (accessed July 12, 2019).

 

B. Food Shortages

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). “The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World: Building Climate Resilience for Food Security and Nutrition” (2018). http://www.fao.org/3/i9553en/i9553en.pdf (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

World Food Programme (WFP). “Climate Impacts on Food Security and Nutrition: A Review of Existing Knowledge.” https://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/communications/wfp258981.pdf?_ga=1.99790428.390903889.1456863227%20at%20p.20 (accessed July 12, 2019).

 

C. Widespread Poverty

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). “The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World: Building Climate Resilience for Food Security and Nutrition” (2018). http://www.fao.org/3/i9553en/i9553en.pdf (accessed July 7, 2019).

 

World Bank Group. “How Can We Finance the Resilient Cities of the Future?” (12 October 2016). https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/10/11/how-can-we-finance-the-resilient-cities-of-the-future (accessed July 12, 2019).

 

D. Human Health

Fox-Skelly, Jasmin. “Long-dormant Bacteria and Viruses, Trapped in Ice and Permafrost for Centuries, are Reviving as Earth’s Climate Warms” (4 May 2017). BBC Earth Stories. http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20170504-there-are-diseases-hidden-in-ice-and-they-are-waking-up (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

E. Mass Migration

Cornell University. “Rising Seas Could Result in 2 billion Refugees by 2100” (June 26, 2017). ScienceDaily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170626105746.htm (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

The Problem of Commerce

A. Seismic Testing and Oil Exploration

Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter, et al. “Narwhals and Seismic Exploration: Is Seismic Noise Increasing the Risk of Ice Entrapments?” Biological Conservation, Vol. 158, February 2013, 50-54. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000632071200359X (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

United States Geological Survey (USGS). “Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle” (2008). https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3049/fs2008-3049.pdf (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

B. Commercial Fishing

Clarke, Joe Sandler. “Arctic Warming Opens Pristine Ocean to Predatory Trawling” (3 March 2016). Ecologist. https://theecologist.org/2016/mar/03/arctic-warming-opens-pristine-ocean-predatory-trawling (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

Dickie, Gloria. “International Accord Bans Fishing in Central Arctic Ocean, Spurs Science” (4 December 2017). Oceans Deeply. https://www.newsdeeply.com/oceans/articles/2017/12/04/international-accord-bans-fishing-in-central-arctic-ocean-spurs-science (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

C. Commercial Shipping

International Maritime Organization (IMO). “Third IMO Greenhouse Gas Study 2014 – Executive Summary and Final Report” (2015). http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Documents/Third%20Greenhouse%20Gas%20Study/GHG3%20Executive%20Summary%20and%20Report.pdf (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

IMO. “Adoption of an International Code of Safety for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code).” http://www.imo.org/en/mediacentre/hottopics/polar/pages/default.aspx (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

Schiffman, Richard. “How Ocean Noise Pollution Wreaks Havoc on Marine Life” (31 March 2016). YaleEnvironment360.com. https://e360.yale.edu/features/how_ocean_noise_pollution_wreaks_havoc_on_marine_life (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

Scholes, Sam. “Too Much Noise in the Ocean for Whales’ Sensitive Ears” (20 October 2013). TheConversation.com. https://theconversation.com/too-much-noise-in-the-ocean-for-whales-sensitive-ears-17933 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

The Problem of Politics

A. Boundary Disputes

Molenaar, Erik J. “The Oslo Declaration on High Seas Fishing in the Central Arctic Ocean.” Arctic Yearbook, 2015 Briefing Notes. https://arcticyearbook.com/arctic-yearbook/2015/2015-briefing-notes/159-the-oslo-declaration-on-high-seas-fishing-in-the-central-arctic-ocean (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

Gramer, Robbie. “Here’s What Russia’s Military Build-Up in the Arctic Looks Like” (25 January 2017). ForeignPolicy.com. https://foreignpolicy.com/2017/01/25/heres-what-russias-military-build-up-in-the-arctic-looks-like-trump-oil-military-high-north-infographic-map/ (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

B. The Paris Agreement (COP 21)

The Arctic Council. “Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation” (11 May 2017). https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/1916 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. “2016 Food, Water, Energy & Climate Outlook.” https://globalchange.mit.edu/publications/signature/2016-food-water-energy-climate-outlook (accessed July 12, 2019).

 

C. The Arctic Council

The Arctic Council. “Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation” (11 May 2017). https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/1916 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

The Arctic Council. “Agreement on Cooperation on Marine Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response in the Arctic” (2013). https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/529 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

The Arctic Council. “Agreement on Cooperation on Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue in the Arctic (2011). https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/531 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

D. Marine Conservation Areas

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF). “Arctic Protected Areas Indicator Report 2017.” https://www.caff.is/assessment-series/414-arctic-protected-areas-indicator-report-2017 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). “Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve.” http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1023 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

UNESCO. “New IUCN World heritage Report Stresses Urgency of Protecting the Arctic from Ships and Oil as Ice Melts” (4 April 2017). http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1649 (accessed July 8, 2019).

 

INSTITUTIONS, ORGANIZATIONS, and RESOURCES

Arctic 21
https://whrc.org/project/arctic-21/

 

Arctic Council
https://arctic-council.org/index.php/en/

 

The Arctic Institute (TAI) – Center for Circumpolar Security Studies
https://www.thearcticinstitute.org/

 

Arctic Institute of North America – Canada
https://arctic.ucalgary.ca/

 

Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)
https://www.arcus.org/

 

Arctic Studies Center – Smithsonian Institute
https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/anthropology/programs/arctic-studies-center

 

Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL)
https://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/Locations/Cold-Regions-Research-and-Engineering-Laboratory/CRREL-Facilities-and-Products/

 

Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) – The Arctic Council
https://www.caff.is/

 

Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research (CIFAR) – NOAA | OAR | University of Alaska
http://cifar.uaf.edu/

 

DARA International
https://daraint.org/

 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
http://www.fao.org/home/en/

 

Future Ocean Excellence Cluster – German Research Foundation
https://www.futureocean.org/en/index.php

 

Indigenous Peoples’ Secretariat – The Arctic Council
https://www.arcticpeoples.com/about

 

Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) – University of Colorado
https://instaar.colorado.edu/

 

Institute of Arctic Studies (IAS) – Dartmouth College
https://dickey.dartmouth.edu/arctic-environment/about-institute-arctic-studies

 

International Arctic Research Center – University of Alaska, Fairbanks
https://uaf-iarc.org/

 

International Arctic Science Committee (IASC)
https://iasc.info/

 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
All reports: https://www.ipcc.ch/reports/

 

International Maritime Organization (IMO) – United Nations
http://www.imo.org/en/About/Pages/Default.aspx

 

International Polar Foundation (IPF) – Belgium
http://www.polarfoundation.org/

 

Marine Environmental Observation, Prediction, and Response Network (MEOPAR) – Canada
http://meopar.ca/

 

Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)
https://www.nrdc.org/

 

NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies
https://www.giss.nasa.gov/

 

National Academy of Sciences
http://www.nasonline.org/

 

National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) – University of Colorado, Boulder
https://nsidc.org/

 

The Nature Conservancy
https://www.nature.org/en-us/about-us/who-we-are/

 

Norwegian Polar Institute
https://www.npolar.no/en/about-us/

 

The Ocean Conservancy
https://oceanconservancy.org/

 

Oceana
https://oceana.org/

 

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
https://www.oecd.org/

 

PEW Environment Group
https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/projects?status=active&sortBy=relevance&sortOrder=asc&page=1#conservation

 

Polar Center – Penn State University and the Penn State Institutes of Energy and the Environment
https://sustainability.psu.edu/calendar/polar-center-penn-state-seminar

 

PoLAR CCEP – Columbia Climate Center
http://climate.columbia.edu/projects/polar/

 

Polar Science Center – University of Washington
http://psc.apl.uw.edu/

 

Protection of the Arctic Marine Environments (PAME) – The Arctic Council
https://arctic-council.org/index.php/en/about-us/working-groups/pame

 

Scott Polar Research Institute – University of Cambridge
https://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/

 

Sierra Club
https://www.sierraclub.org/

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
https://en.unesco.org/

 

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
https://unfccc.int/

 

UN Water
https://www.unwater.org/

 

United States Arctic Research Commission (USARC)
https://www.arctic.gov/

 

United States Geological Survey (USGS)
https://www.usgs.gov/

 

United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
https://www.noaa.gov/

 

University of the Arctic – The Arctic Council
https://www.uarctic.org/

 

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
https://www.ucar.edu/

 

Woods Hole Research Center
https://whrc.org/

 

The World Bank Group
https://www.worldbank.org/

 

World Health Organization
https://www.who.int/

 

World Heritage Marine Programme
http://whc.unesco.org/en/marine-programme.Hampi+World+Heritage+Site+KarnatakaHampi

 

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
https://public.wmo.int/en

 

World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
https://www.worldwildlife.org/

 

Yale Environment 360
https://e360.yale.edu/

DATABASES and LISTS

Arctic Data Center
https://arcticdata.io/

Arctic Portal: The Arctic Portal is a comprehensive gateway to Arctic information and data on the internet, increasing information sharing and co-operation among Arctic stakeholders, under an advisory board of renowned international experts in consultation and co-operation with leading Arctic organizations and institutions. The Arctic Portal provides web presence to over 50 scientific institutions, associations and projects of international importance and participates in Arctic research projects such as European Commission funded EU Arctic Information Centre initiative, Arctic Council SDWG endorsed Arctic Maritime and Aviation Transportation Infrastructure Initiative, the Arctic Council SAON, and many others.
https://arcticportal.org/

 

Arctic Related Information Resources
https://www.nsf.gov/geo/opp/wwwsites.jsp

 

Arctic Related Links – United States Federal Government
https://www.nsf.gov/geo/opp/wwwsites.jsp

 

Arctic Research Program Sites
https://www.nsf.gov/geo/opp/wwwsites.jsp

 

Directory of Arctic Researchers (ARCUS)
https://www.arcus.org/researchers/search

 

Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC)
http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n50047140/

 

GeoRef: Accesses geoscience literature from around the world, including articles, books, maps, papers and more.
https://www.americangeosciences.org/georef/georef-scholarly-information

 

PoLAR Hub
https://thepolarhub.org/

 

Scopus (SciVerse Scopus): Abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature including scientific journals, books, and conference proceedings. Covers science, technology, medicine, social sciences, and arts and humanities. https://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/15534/supporthub/scopus/#tips

 

Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) Polar Directory
https://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/resources/directory/organisations/

 

Selected National Science Foundation-Supported Projects—Arctic Related
https://www.nsf.gov/geo/opp/wwwsites.jsp

 
 
 
 
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